To get rid of parasites, you must first find out which parasites have settled inside the patient and whether they exist at all. To do this, there is a simple fingerprint test. If the eosinophils in it do not exceed 5, you can rest assured - there are no parasites in the body. If this value is higher than 5, a stool analysis for worm eggs is taken and treatment will be prescribed according to the results of the analysis. Drugs for parasites have many unpleasant side effects: hair loss, seizures, kidney failure, drug-induced hepatitis to liver cirrhosis, so only a doctor should prescribe them.
Popular symptoms that are usually attributed to the presence of parasites include nausea, fatigue, lethargy, paleness, irregular bowel movements and constipation. These symptoms are more likely to indicate anemia or a malfunction of the thyroid gland. If they have appeared or lasted for some time, the most sensible thing to do is to see a doctor. And as a preventative measure - wash your hands more often.
Fear of parasites
Many people are completely sincere and very afraid of parasites that seem to seek to enter their bodies. And so they are willing to spend a lot of money on fraudsters who not only search but also "find" parasites, and then "prescribe" all sorts of food supplements and other means for fictional helminths to naive victims. Some people try to eliminate the parasites themselves with the help of garlic, onions and horseradish - their medicines are at least safe. But what will be in the jar received from potential doctors is still unknown.
The problem of parasitosis does exist, but it exists in countries in Asia, Africa and South America. So in some Asian countries, the infection of people with opisthorchiasis reaches 80%. There, special measures are taken to disinfect food and water. But all this is not with us, tropical parasites do not survive in the home climate, although opisthorchiasis is common in the Holon regions. It is transmitted through fish, as well as through cats and dogs that feed on this fish. But today we will talk about other parasites that are quite possible to become infected in our middle lane. These parasites are roundworms and pinworms.
Ascarids and ascariasis
Roundworms parasitize only in humans. The parasite is a rather long round worm with a yellowish-reddish color. The length of an adult male is 15-25 cm, the female is longer - up to 20-40 cm. If roundworms penetrate the human body, the disease develops ascariasis. At the same time, the gastrointestinal tract suffers to a greater extent, but damage to other organs is possible, as well as allergic reactions. Ascariasis is quite common, 60-85 people out of every 100 thousand get it.
Life cycle of roundworms: through the blood to the intestines
A sick person is not dangerous in terms of infection, as the infection occurs when the eggs enter the body. And the eggs come out with feces and first mature in the soil. Eggs have a dense shell, so they can remain in the soil for up to seven years. You can get infected by eating vegetables, fruits or berries that have been exposed to roundworm eggs. In the body, the parasite goes through a long cycle of movement. First, the larvae hatch from the swallowed eggs and enter the bloodstream through the intestinal walls. With the bloodstream they migrate to the liver, to the heart, then to the lungs and from them to the pharynx. When the patient swallows them, the larvae in the gut mature into adult worms that are able to lay eggs.
Symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, weight loss
As the larvae travel through the body, allergic reactions come to the fore. Mechanical damage to those organs through which the larvae pass is also possible - the liver, blood vessels, lungs, intestines. The patient may have fever, rash and pain in the liver, and at the end of the migration stage - cough and shortness of breath. When roundworms settle in the intestines, their waste products are poisoned. Also, the pointed ends of the worms can injure or even pierce the intestines. Manifestations include abdominal pain, morning sickness, loss of appetite and changes in stool. In addition, there is impaired well-being, poor sleep, headaches, increased fatigue and weight loss. The presence of roundworms in the intestine causes a lack of vitamins B6, A and C.
Diagnosis of ascariasis
Blood is taken for diagnosis for a general analysis (increased eosinophils, increased ESR, sometimes anemia) and an antibody test. Under a microscope, larvae can be found in patients' sputum. In the intestinal stage, roundworm eggs are found in the feces, and sometimes the worms themselves.
Medicines for ascariasis
Therapy for ascariasis does not require hospitalization, except in complex cases. Patients are prescribed a diet rich in vitamins, low in fat and carbohydrates. Food intake - four to five times a day. Antiparasitic drugs, antihistamines, probiotics and enzyme preparations are indicated.
Complications of ascariasis
A complication of ascariasis may be intestinal obstruction due to obstruction by a ball of worms. When roundworms crawl in the bile ducts, there is vomiting, jaundice, severe abdominal pain on the right. By the same token, ascariasis pancreatitis is possible, as well as respiratory failure when the airways are blocked by parasites.
Pinworms and enterobiosis
Pinworms are translucent white worms with a length of only 0, 5-1 cm. One end of their body is pointed, which explains the name. They parasitize mainly in the colon and over time can disappear without medication if self-infection does not occur. The fact is that in order to lay eggs, females descend into the anus and do so in the perianal folds, after which they die. In the patient, this process causes severe itching. If after scratching the itchy area the patient does not wash his hands, then the eggs will fall on the linen, surrounding objects, in the food and may remain under the nails. The patient can swallow scissor eggs on his own. This is how self-infection occurs.
Symptoms: anal itching
The main symptom is severe itching in the anus at night, as at this time the parasite lays eggs. In enterobiosis, symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract are possible: abdominal pain, nausea, increased gas production and the nervous system: fatigue, sleep disturbance or insomnia (severe anal itching interferes with normal sleep). Pinworms can penetrate the female genital tract, causing irritation, pain and discharge. And even cause a cough - if it enters the lower respiratory tract.
Diagnosis and treatment of enterobiosis
A basic scraping of the perianal folds (or application of adhesive tape) is used, after which the resulting material is examined under a microscope. So you can find helminth eggs. In a blood test, as in ascariasis, there will be an increase in eosinophils, with the development of complications - signs of inflammation (increased white blood cells, increased ESR). Antiparasitic drugs are used for treatment. Some of them are contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women. To reduce itching, the anus is lubricated with an anesthetic ointment. The most popular folk remedy is garlic.
Complications: dysbiosis, appendicitis
Complications will depend on the body's response and the number of parasitic worms. Possible dysbiosis, appendicitis, vaginitis, salpingitis, endometritis (inflammation of the appendages).
Prevention of ascariasis and enterobiosis
- identification and treatment of patients in time;
- loosen the sandstones (eggs do not tolerate direct sunlight);
- wash your hands after using the toilet and before eating;
- wash vegetables, fruits, berries.
- iron the laundry thoroughly, especially the creases;
- clean the apartment with disinfectants;
- to provide the patient with a personal bed and a place to sleep;
- It is important for children to tear their nails.